pregnancy information

Friday, 14 June 2013

Disease of amniotic fluid, amniotic fluid Disease

Disease of amniotic fluid


Amniotic fluid volume measurement is to assess whether or not an important indicator of normal pregnancy. But separated by a layer of belly, we really difficult to assess accurately how much amniotic fluid.

Currently, the hospital is mostly through the B-to understand the situation of amniotic fluid volume, take the "amniotic fluid index method" to determine whether the normal amniotic fluid volume. Method is: the uterus is divided into four quadrants, namely, the amount of amniotic fluid in each quadrant of the maximum depth, then as the total sum. Sum total of 8 to 24 cm in a normal state within the range of less than 8 oligohydramnios, amniotic fluid was greater than 24.

Oligohydramnios disease

Oligohydramnios, fetal abnormality or the mother is latent important manifestation of the disease. Even if the fetus was no unusual circumstances, such as after birth, such neonatal morbidity and mortality cyclical than the average baby. Therefore, when there is too little amniotic fluid phenomena should first find out the cause immediately.

Common cause

1. Mother's side: Mother exists insufficient water intake, low volume hyperlipidemia, the influence of drugs, pregnancy-induced hypertension and other conditions.

2. Fetus: the water breaks during early pregnancy, fetal growth retardation, fetal expired over cooked, fetal abnormalities (eg: fetal urinary system abnormalities), placental insufficiency.

3. Other areas: medical cause or for no apparent reason.

Corresponding treatment

When they find pregnant women have premature rupture of membranes occurs, you must be able to continue tocolysis detected, or the importance of early infection has serious production; when there is the case of fetal abnormality, you must determine the womb or early treatment of production, or the production of full-term re-treatment and so on.

If oligohydramnios and associated with fetal growth retardation, it must be considered for early production, because it means that there is already some degree of fetal distress, and to continue a pregnancy cannot ensure safety.

In addition, long-term oligohydramnios also cause fetal oppression, resulting in facial deformity or limbs posture, so if necessary, should be given the amniotic fluid perfusion, increased amniotic fluid volume.


Normal pregnancy the amniotic fluid volume increased with increasing gestational age, Amniotic fluid embolism

Last 2 to 4 weeks gradually reduced amniotic fluid at term pregnancy is about 1000ml (800 ~ 1200ml), where any period of gestation sheep than 2000ml of water, called polyhydramnios (polyhydramnios).

Normal pregnancy the amniotic fluid volume increased with increasing gestational age, the last 2 to 4 weeks gradually reduced amniotic fluid at term pregnancy is about 1000ml (800 ~ 1200ml), where any period of gestation sheep than 2000ml of water, called as polyhydramnios (polyhydramnios). Up to 20000ml. Most pregnant women increase in amniotic fluid slowly, over a longer period of time to form, known as chronic polyhydramnios; few amniotic fluid of pregnant women increased dramatically in a few days, called acute polyhydramnios. The incidence of polyhydramnios reported in the literature of 0.5% to 1%, gestational diabetes, the incidence rate of up to 20%. Polyhydramnios amniotic fluid appearance, traits and normal not strange.

Amniotic fluid colour, Amniotic colour

Amniotic fluid colour

Amniotic fluid colour change with increasing gestational age.

Term before, amniotic fluid is a colorless, clear liquid; term due to have fat tires, fetal skin exfoliated cells, vellus hair, hair and other small pieces of which was suspended, then the amniotic fluid was mixed with mild milky white flocculent there of.

From the colour of the amniotic fluid during pregnancy can also know the situation:

Medical Equipment

Yellow-green or dark green: Fetal distress syndrome.

Marked red or brown: Fetal death.

Golden Yellow: Female children ABO hemolytic caused by amniotic fluid bilirubin.

Viscous yellow: prolonged pregnancy, placental dysfunction.

Purulent or turbid with the smell: intrauterine infection.

The role of amniotic fluid, amniotic fluid importance.

The role of amniotic fluid, amniotic fluid importance.

1. During pregnancy, amniotic fluid can ease abdominal external pressure or impact, the fetus is not to be directly affected by damage.

2. amniotic fluid can stabilize the temperature inside the uterus, so as not to have dramatic changes in fetal growth and development, the fetus can have an active space, and thus, fetal development is not to form a limb abnormalities or deformities.

3. amniotic fluid can reduce the mother to the fetus in uterus activities.
4. Amniotic fluid as well as some antibacterial substances, which have a role in reducing infections.

5. during childbirth, amniotic fluid formation of cysts that can ease the dilation of the cervix.

6. in the breech and foot position, avoid umbilical cord prolapse.

7. Contraction of the uterus, amniotic fluid can buffer the fetus uterus oppression, especially the oppression of the head of the fetus.

8. broken water after birth canal has some amniotic fluid for lubrication; the fetus is delivered more easily.

Amniotic fluid, Amniotic fluid information

Amniotic fluid

The so-called amniotic fluid is the uterus during pregnancy amniotic fluid. Throughout the pregnancy, it is indispensable to sustain fetal life an important ingredient. Different developmental stages in the fetus, amniotic fluid source also varies. In the first trimester of pregnancy, amniotic fluid mainly from embryos plasma components; later, with the development of the embryo's organs begin to mature, others, such as fetal urine, respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract, umbilical cord, placenta surface, etc., have become a source of amniotic fluid.

Amniotic fluid composition

98% of the composition of the amniotic fluid is water, while a small amount of inorganic salts, organic matter and loss of fetal hormonal Amniotic fluid

Amniotic fluid Cells. The weight of the amniotic fluid will usually increase with the number of weeks of pregnancy and increased at 20 weeks, the average is 500 ml; to 28 weeks, will be increased to 700 ml; at 32 to 36 weeks, up to approximately 1000 to 1 500 ml; which then gradually decreased. Therefore, based on the clinical 300 to 2000 milliliters normal range, more than this range is called "polyhydramnios" not up to the standard are called "oligohydramnios syndrome", these two conditions are necessary special attention.

Name of the Origin
Because amniotic membrane (Amnion) The word is derived from the Greek word Amnos, this is the meaning of lamb, because lamb coated with a layer membranes birth. Therefore extend this usage, so will translate into amnion.

Amniotic fluid is an ancient term, the source for Yin and Yang theory. Ancient word "sheep" and "yang" is the same, Yang, Yang two homonyms, represents the beginning of human life, without sun, so that the source of human life, beginning as "amniotic fluid." Should actually be "yang water." Human life from Zhengyang beginning to end is yin. So Yousui become life opens Fetus in the amniotic fluid.

A symbol of the beginning gave birth to the origin of life of the land. Now says the amniotic fluid, in fact, out of the traditional Chinese medicine theory argument, should be corrected as "Yang Water."

Wednesday, 12 June 2013

Uterus informations


The uterus (the Latin "uterus", plural uterus) or womb is an important female hormone that responds sexual organ's reproductive most mammals, including humans. One end, cervix, open in the vagina, while the other is connected to 1 or 2 fallopian tubes, depending of the species. It is within the uterus that the fetus develops during gestation, usually developing completely in mammals placental such as human beings and partially in marsupials such like kangaroos and opossums. Two uteruses usually form initially in a female fetus, and in placental mammals that may melt partially or completely in a single uterus depending of the species. In many species with two uteruses, only one is functional. Humans and other primates superiors like chimpanzees, along with horses, usually have a single uterus completely melted, though in some individuals the uteri may not have a complete fusion. In English, the term uterus is used consistently within professions medical and allied, while the term matrix Germanic derivative is most common in everyday usage.

La most animals that lay eggs, as birds and the reptiles, including species most ovoviviparous, have a oviduct instead of a uterus. Please note however, that the recent investigation on the biology of the viviparous (not just ovoviviparous) eslizón Trachylepis ivensi has revealed the development of a close analog to the development of the placenta of mammals eutherian.

In the monotremes, mammals that lay eggs, i.e. el ornitorrinco and equidnas, either the term uterus or oviduct is used to describe the same organ, but the egg no develops a placenta inside the mother and therefore not receive more food after the formation and fertilization.

Los marsupials have two uteruses, each of which connects with the vagina lateral and that both use one third, "Vagina" center which functions as the birth canal. Embryos marsupials form a choriovitelline "placenta" (which can be thought as something between an egg monotreme and a "true" placenta), in which the egg yolk without Output supplies a large part of nutrition of the embryo, but also adheres to the uterine wall and takes nutrients from maternal blood.

Function Uterus, Uterus Functions

Function Uterus

The uterus is comprised of a body and cervix. The cervix protrudes into the vagina. The uterus is held in position within the fascia pelvis pelvic condensations end, called ligaments. These ligaments include pubocervical, transverse. cervical ligaments cardinal ligaments and uterosacral ligaments. It is covered by a sheet-like fold of peritoneum, the broad ligament.

The uterus is essential in sexual response by directing blood flow to the pelvis and to the external genitalia, including the ovaries, vagina, labia, and clitoris.

Uterine reproductive function is to accept a fertilized egg that passes through the utero-tubal junction from the fallopian tube. It is implanted in the endometrium, and derives nourishment from blood vessels which develop exclusively for this purpose. The fertilized egg becomes an embryo, attaches to a wall of the uterus, creates a placenta, and develops into a fetus (gestation) until delivery. Due to anatomical barriers such as the pelvis, the uterus is pushed partially into the abdomen due to its expansion during pregnancy. Even during pregnancy the mass of a human uterus amounts to only about one kilogram (2.2 pounds).

Function Uterus, Uterus Functions

Function Uterus

The uterus is comprised of a body and cervix. The cervix protrudes into the vagina. The uterus is held in position within the fascia pelvis pelvic condensations end, called ligaments. These ligaments include pubocervical, transverse. cervical ligaments cardinal ligaments and uterosacral ligaments. It is covered by a sheet-like fold of peritoneum, the broad ligament.

The uterus is essential in sexual response by directing blood flow to the pelvis and to the external genitalia, including the ovaries, vagina, labia, and clitoris.

Uterine reproductive function is to accept a fertilized egg that passes through the utero-tubal junction from the fallopian tube. It is implanted in the endometrium, and derives nourishment from blood vessels which develop exclusively for this purpose. The fertilized egg becomes an embryo, attaches to a wall of the uterus, creates a placenta, and develops into a fetus (gestation) until delivery. Due to anatomical barriers such as the pelvis, the uterus is pushed partially into the abdomen due to its expansion during pregnancy. Even during pregnancy the mass of a human uterus amounts to only about one kilogram (2.2 pounds).

Layers in uterus, uterus layers

Layers in uterus

The three layers, the innermost to outside are as follows:


The lining of the uterine cavity is called the "endometrium". It consists of the functional endometrium and the basal endometrium from which the former arises. Damage to the basal endometrium results in the formation of adhesions and / or fibrosis (Asherman's syndrome). In all placental mammals, including humans, endometrium periodically builds a coating which is poured or resorbed unless pregnancy occurs. Detachment of functional endometrial lining is responsible for menstrual bleeding (colloquially known as "period" in humans, with a cycle of about 28 days, + / -7 days flow and + / -21 days of development) along fertile years of a female and for some time beyond. Depending on the species and attributes of physical and psychological health, weight, environmental factors circadian rhythm, photoperiodism (the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night), the effect of menstrual cycles reproductive function of the uterus is subject to hormone production, cell regeneration and other biological activities. Menstrual cycles may vary from a few days to six months, but can vary widely even in the same individual, often stopping for several cycles before resuming. Marsupials and monotremes do not have menstruation.


The uterus is mainly composed of smooth muscle, known as "myometrium." The innermost layer of the myometrium is known as the junction area, which becomes thicker in adenomyosis.


The loose connective tissue around the uterus.

Hysterectomy rates, types of hysterectomy

Hysterectomy rates, types of hysterectomy

Hysterectomy, in the literal sense of the word, it means just removing the uterus. However, other organs such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes and cervix are removed frequently as part of the surgery.

• Radical hysterectomy-removal of the entire uterus, cervix, upper vagina, and parametrium. Indicated for cancer. Lymph, ovaries and fallopian tubes are also removed in this situation generally.

• Total hysterectomy: Complete removal of the uterus and cervix, with or without oophorectomy.

• subtotal hysterectomy-removal of the uterus, leaving the cervix in situ.

Subtotal hysterectomy (supracervical) originally proposed with the expectation that it can improve sexual function after hysterectomy, it has been postulated that removing the cervix causes excessive neurologic and anatomic disruption, which leads to a shortening vaginal prolapse vaginal vault and vaginal vault granulations. These theoretical advantages were not confirmed in practice, but other advantages over hysterectomy emerged. The main disadvantage is that the risk of cervical cancer is not removed and women may continue cyclical bleeding (but substantially less than before surgery). These issues were addressed in a systematic review compared supracervical hysterectomy for benign gynecological conditions, which reported the following results:

• There was no difference in rates of incontinence, constipation, sexual function measures or relief of symptoms before surgery.

• Duration of surgery and the amount of blood lost during surgery was significantly reduced during supracervical hysterectomy compared to total hysterectomy, but no difference in the rates of transfusion after the operation.

• febrile morbidity was less likely and ongoing cyclic vaginal bleeding one year after surgery was more likely after supracervical hysterectomy.
• There were no differences in the rates of other complications, recovery from surgery, or readmission rates.

A short-term, randomized trials have shown that cervical preservation or removal does not affect the rate of subsequent pelvic organ prolapse.

Supracervical hysterectomy does not eliminate the possibility of cervical cancer since the cervix itself is left intact and may be contraindicated in women at increased risk of this cancer, are still needed regular Pap tests to monitor cervical dysplasia or cancer.

Benefits of hysterectomy, hysterectomy uses

Benefits of hysterectomy

Hysterectomy is performed usually for serious conditions and is very effective in curing such conditions.

The Maine Women's Health Study of 1994 followed by 12 months of time of about 800 women with similar gynecological problems (pelvic pain, urinary incontinence due to uterine prolapse, severe endometriosis, excessive menstrual bleeding, large fibroids, painful intercourse), around half of whom had a hysterectomy and half of them did not. The study found that a significant number of those who had a hysterectomy had a marked improvement in their symptoms after a hysterectomy, and a significant improvement in their physical and mental health in general A Year of surgery.

The study concluded that for those who have intractable gynecological problems that had not responded to non-surgical intervention, hysterectomy may be beneficial to your health and wellness. Surprisingly, the risk of ovarian cancer after hysterectomy seems to be down considerably even if the ovaries are preserved.

Mortality and surgical risks of hysterectomy

Mortality and surgical risks of hysterectomy

The short-term mortality (within 40 days of surgery) is usually reported in the range of 1-6 cases per 1000 when performed for benign causes. The risks of surgical complications are the presence of fibroids, younger age (vascular pelvis with an increased risk of bleeding and increased size of the uterus), dysfunctional uterine bleeding and parity.

The mortality rate is several times higher when performed in patients who are pregnant, have cancer or other complications.
Long term effect on mortality for all cases is relatively small. Women under age 45 have a significantly long-term mortality that is believed to be caused by hormonal side effects of hysterectomy and oophorectomy.

Approximately 35% of women after hysterectomy undergo another related surgery within 2 years.

Urethral injury is not uncommon and can range from 2.2% to 3% depending on whether the mode is abdominal, laparoscopic or vaginal. The lesion typically occurs in the distal ureter near infundibulopelvic ligament or a ureter crosses under the uterine artery, often from positioning blind fasteners and ligation to control bleeding.

Uterine fibroids

Uterine fibroids

Levonorgestrel intrauterine devices are highly effective in limiting menstrual blood flow and improving other symptoms. Side effects are typically very moderate because the levonorgestrel (a progestin) is released in low concentration locally. There is now substantial evidence that Levongestrel-IUDs provide good relief of symptoms in women with fibroids.

Uterine fibroids can be removed and the uterus reconstructed in a procedure called "myomectomy." This surgery may be performed through an open incision, laparoscopic or through the vagina (hysteroscopy).

Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of uterine fibroids. Under local anesthesia a catheter is inserted into the femoral artery in the groin and advanced under radiographic control in the uterine arterty. A mass of microspheres or polyvinyl material alcohol (PVA) (a plunger) is injected into the uterine arteries in order to block the flow of blood through the vessels. The restriction in blood supply usually results in a significant reduction of fibroids and improvement of heavy bleeding tendency. The 2012 Cochrane review comparing hysterectomy and UAE found no significant advantage for either procedure. While UAE is associated with a shorter hospital stay and faster return to normal daily activities was also associated with an increased risk of minor complications later. There was no difference between UAE and hysterectomy with respect to major complications.

Menopause information, what about menopause


Menopause literally means the "end of monthly cycles" (the end of monthly periods aka menstruation), from the Greek word pausis (cessation) and the root of men (months). Menopause is an event that usually (but not always) occurs in middle-aged women, in their 40s or 50s, and signals the end of the fertile phase of a woman's life. However, instead of being defined by the state of the uterus and the absence of menses, menopause is more accurately defined as the permanent cessation of the primary functions of the ovaries: the ripening and release of ova and the release of hormones that cause both the creation of the uterine lining and the subsequent shedding of the uterine lining (aka the menses or the period).

This transition from a reproductive potential to non-reproductive is the result of a reduction in female hormonal production by the ovaries. This transition is normally not sudden or abrupt, tends to occur over a period of years, and is a consequence of biological aging. However, for some women, the accompanying signs and effects that can occur during the transitional years of menopause can significantly alter their daily activities and sense of well being. In addition, women who have some type of functional impairment that affects the reproductive system (eg, endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, cancer of the reproductive organs) may enter menopause at a younger age than the normal timeframe. Functional disorders often significantly speed up the menopausal process and create more health problems, both physical and emotional, for the affected woman.

The word "menopause" was coined specifically for human females, where the end of fertility is traditionally indicated by the permanent discontinuation of monthly periods. However, menopause also exists in some other animals, many of which have no monthly menstruation, in this case, the term means a natural fertility end that occurs before the end of the natural life span.

The date of menopause in human females is formally medically defined as the time from the last menstrual period (or menstrual flow of any amount, however small), in women who have had a hysterectomy. Women who have their uterus removed but retain their ovaries do not immediately go into menopause, even though their periods cease. Adult women who have their ovaries however, enter immediately complete surgical menopause, no matter how old they are.

Menopause is an unavoidable change that every woman will experience, assuming she reaches middle age and beyond. It is desirable that women are able to learn what to expect and what options are available to help the transition, if it becomes necessary. Menopause has a wide starting range, but usually can be expected in the 42-58 age range. Early menopause may be related to smoking, body mass index higher, racial and ethnic factors, illnesses, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgical removal of the ovaries, with or without removal of the uterus.

Menopause can be officially declared (in an adult woman who is not pregnant, not breastfeeding, and having an intact uterus) when there has been amenorrhea (absence of menstruation) for one full year. However, there are many signs and effects that lead to this point, many of which may extend well beyond the "official" date statement of menopause. These include: irregular manses, vasomotor instability (hot flashes and night sweats), atrophy of genitourinary tissue, increased stress, breast tenderness, vaginal dryness, forgetfulness, mood swings, and in some cases, osteoporosis and / or heart disease. These effects are related to the hormonal changes a woman's body is going through, and affect each woman to a different degree. The only sign or effect that all women universally have in common is that at the end of the menopause transition every woman will have a total cessation of menstruation.

Premature menopause

Premature menopause

In rare cases, a woman's ovaries stop working at a very early age, from puberty to age 40, which is known as premature ovarian failure (POF). Spontaneous premature ovarian failure affects 1% of women age 40 and 0.1% of women 30 years of age. POF is not considered to be due to the normal effects of aging. Known causes of premature ovarian failure include autoimmune diseases, thyroid disease, diabetes mellitus, chemotherapy, as a gene carrier of fragile X syndrome and radiotherapy. However, in most cases spontaneous premature ovarian failure, the cause is unknown, ie it is generally idiopathic.

POF is diagnosed or confirmed by high blood levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in at least 3 times, at least 4 weeks apart. It has been found that the rates of premature menopause to be significantly higher in fraternal and identical twins, about 5% of twins reach menopause before age 40. The reasons for this are not fully understood. Ovarian tissue transplants between identical twins have been successful in restoring fertility.

The context in the menstrual cycle hormonal

The context in the menstrual cycle hormonal

The stages of the menopause transition have been classified according to the reported bleeding patterns of women, with the support of the changes in the levels of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

In younger women during a normal menstrual cycle the ovaries produce estradiol, testosterone and progesterone in a cyclical pattern under the control of FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH), which both are produced by the pituitary gland. Blood estradiol levels remain relatively unchanged, or may increase approaching menopause, but usually well preserved until late menopause. This is supposed to be in response to elevated levels of FSH. However, the transition of menopause is characterized by marked variation, and often dramatic levels of FSH and estradiol, and because of this, the measurements of these hormones are not considered to be reliable guides for menopausal status exact of a woman.

Menopause is based on natural or surgical removal of estradiol and progesterone production by the ovaries, which are a part of the body's endocrine system hormone production, in this case the hormones that allow reproduction and influence sexual behavior. After menopause, estrogen still occurs in other tissues, including ovarian, but also in bone, blood vessels and even brain. However, the dramatic fall in circulating levels of estradiol in menopause affects many tissues of the brain to the skin.

In contrast to the sudden fall in estradiol during menopause, the levels of total and free testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and androstenedione appear to decline more or less steadily with age. Not observed an effect of natural menopause on circulating androgen levels. Therefore tissue-specific effects of natural menopause cannot be attributed to the loss of androgen hormone production. However, women who have had their ovaries removed surgically, who have had their ovaries damaged by chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or who have ovarian gonadotropin suppression, have loss of ovarian androgen production as a result.

Menopause can be induced surgically by bilateral oophorectomy (removal of the ovaries), which is often, but not always, made in conjunction with the extraction of the fallopian tubes (salpingo-oophorectomy), and the uterus (hysterectomy). The cessation of menses as a result of the removal of the ovaries is called "surgical menopause." The sudden and complete drop in hormone levels usually produces extreme withdrawal symptoms such as hot flashes, etc. Removal of the uterus without removing the ovaries, a hysterectomy does not cause menopause, although pelvic surgery can often trigger  a little earlier menopause, perhaps because of a compromised blood supply to the ovaries.

Indications and signs of menopause, menopause indications and signs

Indications and signs of menopause

During the menopausal transition, as the body responds to the rapidly fluctuating levels of natural hormones fall, you may see a number of effects. Not all women experience bothersome levels of these effects, the range of effects and the degree in which they appear is very variable from one person to another.

Effects that are due to low estrogen levels (eg vaginal atrophy and skin drying) continue after menopause transition years are, however, many of the effects produced by the extreme fluctuations in hormone levels (eg, hot flashes and mood changes) usually disappear or improve significantly once the perimenopause transition is completely finished. All the various possible perimenopause effects are caused by an overall drop, as well as dramatic but erratic fluctuations, in absolute and relative levels of estrogen and progesterone levels. Effects such as tingling (crawling, itching or tingling skin) can be associated directly with hormone withdrawal.

Both users and non-users of hormone replacement therapy identify lack of energy as the most frequent and distressing effect. Other effects can include vasomotor symptoms such as hot flashes, palpitations and psychological disorders such as depression, anxiety, irritability, mood swings, memory problems and lack of concentration, and atrophic effects such as vaginal dryness and urgency of urination.

The average woman also has increasingly menstrual periods irregular because ovulations omitted. Typically, the time of the flow becomes unpredictable. Furthermore, the duration of flow can be significantly shorter or longer than normal, and the flow itself may be significantly heavier or lighter than was previously the case, including staining times long bouts. Early in the process, it is not uncommon for some cycles of 2 weeks. Also in the process is common to omit periods of months at a time, and these skipped periods may be followed by a heavier period. The number of skipped periods in a row often increases as time approaches the last time. By the time a woman of menopausal age has had periods or spotting for 12 months, is considered to be a year of post-menopause.

One way to assess the impact on women of some of these effects menopause are the Greene Climacteric Scale questionnaire, Cervantes Scale and the Scale for the Assessment of menopause

• Vascular Instability

• Hot flashes or hot flushes, including night sweats and, in some people, chills

• Possible increased risk of atherosclerosis but contentious

• Migraine

• Rapid heartbeat

Urogenital atrophy, vaginal atrophy, also known as

Atrophic vaginitis

• thinning the membrane of the vulva, vagina, cervix, urinary tract and outside, together with a considerable shrinkage and loss of elasticity of all internal and external genital areas.

• Itching

• Dryness

• Young women who are approaching menopause may experience dysfunctional bleeding due to hormonal changes that accompany the transition to menopause. Genital bleeding is an alarming symptom for postmenopausal women requiring adequate study to rule out malignancy. Spotting or bleeding may be related to a harmless pain (polyp or lesion) or functional endometrial response (noncancerous). The European Menopause and Andropause Society has published guidelines for the evaluation of the endometrium, which is the main source of spotting or bleeding.

• Watery

• Urinary frequency

• Urinary incontinence can worsen menopause-related quality of life, although urinary incontinence is more related to obstetric events menopause.

• Urinary urgency

• Increased susceptibility to inflammation and infection, for example vaginal candidiasis and urinary tract infections

• Backache

• Joint pain, muscle pain

• Osteopenia and the risk of developing osteoporosis over time gradually
Skin, soft tissue

• breast atrophy

• Breast tenderness swelling

• Decreased skin elasticity

• Tingling (itching, tingling, burning, tingling or sensation of ants on or under the skin)

• Thinning and become dry


• Depression and / or anxiety

• Fatigue

• Irritability

• Loss of memory and concentration problems

• Mood Disorders

• Sleep disturbances, poor quality sleep, light sleep, insomnia and drowsiness.


• Dyspareunia or painful intercourse

• Decreased libido

• The problems reaching orgasm

• Vaginal dryness and vaginal atrophy

Cohort studies have reached varying conclusions about medical conditions associated with menopause. For example, a 2007 study found that menopause was associated with hot flashes, joint pain and muscle pain, and depressed mood. In the same study, it was found that menopause is not associated with lack of sleep, decreased libido and vaginal dryness. However, in contrast to this, a 2008 study found an association with poor sleep quality.

Causes of menopause, menopause causes

Causes of menopause

The causes of menopause can be considered from complementary perspectives coming (mechanistic) (as is) or (adaptive evolutionary) perspectives end (why it happens). The last group are only hypotheses.

Proximate Perspective

Natural or physiological menopause occurs as part of the normal aging process of a woman. It is the result of the eventual depletion of almost all of the oocytes and ovarian follicles in the ovaries. This causes an increase in circulating follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone levels (LH), because there is a decrease in the number of oocytes and follicles that respond to these hormones and estrogen production. This decrease in estrogen production leads to symptoms of pre-menopausal hot flashes, mood swings and sleeplessness. The long-term effects may include osteoporosis and vaginal atrophy.

Depletion of ovarian reserve

Titus et al. proposed an explanation for decreased ovarian reserve during aging. They found that as women age, double-strand breaks in DNA accumulate their primordial follicles. Primordial follicles are immature primary oocytes surrounded by a single layer of granulosa cells. An enzyme system is present in oocytes that normally need repair double-strand DNA breaks. This repair system called "homologous recombination repair", and is especially effective during meiosis. Meiosis is the general process by which stem cells are formed in all eukaryotes sex, and appears to be adapted to the removal of damaged efficiently in germline DNA.

Human primary oocytes are present in an intermediate bachelor meiosis called prophase I (see Oogenesis). Titus et al. Also demonstrated that the expression of four genes key DNA repair are required for homologous recombination repair during meiosis (BRCA1, MRE11, Rad51 and ATM) decrease with age in the oocytes. This age-related decline in the ability to repair the damage of double-strand DNA may account for the accumulation of damages then probably contributes to decreased ovarian reserve.

Evolutionary theories of menopause

Unlike men, women invest more in their gametes, so that a very valuable resource. Selection therefore theoretically should favor a number of eggs to be sufficient to female life. Excess investment is a waste of resources, while the lack of investment leads to reduced fitness. Human females, however, spend more than a third of your life in a post-reproductive phase. Possible evolutionary explanations for survival beyond reproductive maturation range of non-adaptation to adaptation.

Adaptive hypothesis

The high cost of investment in female offspring may lead to physiological changes that amplify susceptibility to becoming infertile. This hypothesis suggests the reproductive lifespan in humans has been optimized, but it has proven more difficult in females and thus their reproductive span is shorter. If this hypothesis were true however, age at menopause should be negatively correlated with reproductive effort and the available data do not support this.

A recent increase in female longevity due to improvements in the standard of living and social care has also been suggested. It is difficult for selection, however, in favor of aid to offspring from parents and grandparents Irrespective of living standards, adaptive responses are limited by physiological mechanisms. In other words, senescence is programmed and regulated by specific genes.
Adaptive hypotheses

The mother hypothesis

The mother hypothesis suggests that menopause has been selected to humans due to the long period of development of human offspring and high costs of reproduction so that mothers gain an advantage in reproductive fitness by redirecting their effort new offspring with a low probability of survival of existing children a greater chance of survival.

Uterine glands

Uterine glands

In the uterine glands uterus are shaped tube lined by ciliated columnar epithelium.

They are small in the unimpregnated uterus, but shortly after impregnation become enlarged and elongated, presenting a kinked or wavy appearance.

Uterine glands function

Uterine glands synthesize and secrete or transport substances essential for survival and development of the embryo or fetus and associated extra embryonic membranes.

Some components secretary of the uterine glands are absorbed by the secondary yolk sac lining the cavity exocoelomic during pregnancy, and it can help in providing fetal nutrition.

Artificial Uterus

Artificial Uterus

An artificial uterus (or womb) is a theoretical device that allows extracorporeal pregnancy or extrauterine fetal incubation (EUFI) by the growth of an embryo or fetus from the body of a woman's body that would normally internally the embryo or fetus term.

An artificial uterus, as a replacement organ, would have many applications. It could be used to help women with damaged or diseased uterus to carry a pregnancy to term. Potentially, this can be realized as a switch of a natural uterus an artificial womb, thereby moving the threshold to fetal viability much earlier stage of pregnancy. In this regard, can be considered as an incubator with widespread functions. In addition, can potentially be used for initiation of fetal development. Furthermore, it could serve to carry out, for example, fetal surgery procedures at an early stage rather than having to postpone pregnancy until term.

Uterine Wall, wall of uterine

Uterine Wall

Naturally, the myometrium of the uterine wall functions to push the fetus in the end of pregnancy, endometrial and plays a role in the formation of the placenta.

An artificial womb may include components of equivalent function. In addition, methods have been considered for connecting artificial placenta and other components "internal" directly to an external circulation

Saturday, 8 June 2013

Low back pain in the pregnancy

Low back pain in the pregnancy

Back pain during pregnancy is not a big problem once you establish the cause of it.

Back pain in pregnancy

In most cases, doctors attributed back pain during pregnancy with increasing weight. There are some simple ways that you can address the problem. With the easy guidelines, you can relieve pressure on your back and just because of problems with her pregnancy. Many mothers worry about the pain. It's a good idea to talk to a doctor first. From here you can see the problem that you have. Should be a be a doctor, the doctor may prescribe a medication for back pain in pregnancy. If the discomfort is common, you can do the following tips:

I. Use low shoes: Many ladies like walking in stilettos style. However, during pregnancy, it is a good idea to go for light and flat shoes. This will increase the body's balance while walking. You should avoid high heels because they will force the spinal cord and cause back pain in pregnancy. The market has fashion shoes and trendy that you can look good in.

II. Some pelvic exercises: In the early months of your pregnancy, you can try to do some exercises that can help relax the muscles of the back. You lie on your back and knees bent. You hold yourself together with arms and body rock from side to side in slow and easy actions. Then you can do it several times with good rest intervals to not get tired.

III. You can use a pillow. It can be used to support your back while sleeping. As you progress, you can get a small pillow to support your belly. This will help get rid of excess weight being carried back when lying.

IV. Maternity Belt: Today, there are more ideas to help hold the mother's womb. The maternity belly is used to increase a little support when walking or standing around. It is a good idea for working mothers who are always on their feet. It can make movement easier and the mother does not tire quickly. The best thing about this film is the fact that it affects the blood circulation of the mother. It can be used when you are asleep.
May. You can massage your back with a liniment if the pain becomes severe. However, you should consult with your doctor to confirm whether it is a safe product.

Lower back pain in early pregnancy, early pregnancy back pain

Lower back pain in early pregnancy

Back pain in early pregnancy is a common problem that most expectant mothers experience.

Doctors say that the cause of back pain in early pregnancy due to increased body weight. This brings imbalance and some body tissues overworked causing deformation. Most of the pressure in pregnancy is placed in the back. This makes you feel tired all the time. Back pain in early pregnancy can extend even over the nine months. Doctors also say that the hormonal changes during pregnancy can be attributed to the low back discomfort. Other complaints include lower abdominal pain. However, you should go to see a doctor so that the cause established. Not a good idea to assume the cause:

I. Do some exercises: You must resist the temptation to lie. You can try some exercise, such as going for a walk. This is safe for mother and baby. You should avoid rigorous activities such as running or lifting weights. You should talk to a professional consultant on the activities that are good for you. Back pain in early pregnancy can be treated by making some simple exercises.

II. Adaptation of an upright posture: When you're pregnant, the weight on the front end tends to make them feel like bending forward. You should try as much as possible to stay upright. The earlier in pregnancy you start the better for you. It relieves the discomfort as the weight is not concentrated in one area of
​​the body. When seated, get a chair that can fully support. When standing, do not rely on objects in an awkward posture.

III. Rest: You should avoid strenuous work tend to make you bend all the time. You should try as much as possible to relax. This will give your muscles time to rest. You should tailor the type of a position that makes you feel comfortable. If you feel uncomfortable, you should change the position. It's a good idea to avoid things that affect your back. You should be careful with heavy loads.

IV. Eat right: You should keep out foods that make your stomach feel bloated or cause constipation. It is healthy to drink lots of water and eat lots of fiber. This will prevent the discomfort of indigestion. If you are under medication that is causing the problem, go back to the doctor. Low back pain should not be ignored in pregnancy. It could be a sign of a serious underlying problem.