pregnancy information

Wednesday, 12 June 2013

Menopause information, what about menopause


Menopause literally means the "end of monthly cycles" (the end of monthly periods aka menstruation), from the Greek word pausis (cessation) and the root of men (months). Menopause is an event that usually (but not always) occurs in middle-aged women, in their 40s or 50s, and signals the end of the fertile phase of a woman's life. However, instead of being defined by the state of the uterus and the absence of menses, menopause is more accurately defined as the permanent cessation of the primary functions of the ovaries: the ripening and release of ova and the release of hormones that cause both the creation of the uterine lining and the subsequent shedding of the uterine lining (aka the menses or the period).

This transition from a reproductive potential to non-reproductive is the result of a reduction in female hormonal production by the ovaries. This transition is normally not sudden or abrupt, tends to occur over a period of years, and is a consequence of biological aging. However, for some women, the accompanying signs and effects that can occur during the transitional years of menopause can significantly alter their daily activities and sense of well being. In addition, women who have some type of functional impairment that affects the reproductive system (eg, endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, cancer of the reproductive organs) may enter menopause at a younger age than the normal timeframe. Functional disorders often significantly speed up the menopausal process and create more health problems, both physical and emotional, for the affected woman.

The word "menopause" was coined specifically for human females, where the end of fertility is traditionally indicated by the permanent discontinuation of monthly periods. However, menopause also exists in some other animals, many of which have no monthly menstruation, in this case, the term means a natural fertility end that occurs before the end of the natural life span.

The date of menopause in human females is formally medically defined as the time from the last menstrual period (or menstrual flow of any amount, however small), in women who have had a hysterectomy. Women who have their uterus removed but retain their ovaries do not immediately go into menopause, even though their periods cease. Adult women who have their ovaries however, enter immediately complete surgical menopause, no matter how old they are.

Menopause is an unavoidable change that every woman will experience, assuming she reaches middle age and beyond. It is desirable that women are able to learn what to expect and what options are available to help the transition, if it becomes necessary. Menopause has a wide starting range, but usually can be expected in the 42-58 age range. Early menopause may be related to smoking, body mass index higher, racial and ethnic factors, illnesses, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgical removal of the ovaries, with or without removal of the uterus.

Menopause can be officially declared (in an adult woman who is not pregnant, not breastfeeding, and having an intact uterus) when there has been amenorrhea (absence of menstruation) for one full year. However, there are many signs and effects that lead to this point, many of which may extend well beyond the "official" date statement of menopause. These include: irregular manses, vasomotor instability (hot flashes and night sweats), atrophy of genitourinary tissue, increased stress, breast tenderness, vaginal dryness, forgetfulness, mood swings, and in some cases, osteoporosis and / or heart disease. These effects are related to the hormonal changes a woman's body is going through, and affect each woman to a different degree. The only sign or effect that all women universally have in common is that at the end of the menopause transition every woman will have a total cessation of menstruation.

No comments:

Post a Comment