Indications and signs of menopause
During the menopausal transition, as the body responds to the rapidly fluctuating levels of natural hormones fall, you may see a number of effects. Not all women experience bothersome levels of these effects, the range of effects and the degree in which they appear is very variable from one person to another.
Effects that are due to low estrogen levels (eg vaginal atrophy and skin drying) continue after menopause transition years are, however, many of the effects produced by the extreme fluctuations in hormone levels (eg, hot flashes and mood changes) usually disappear or improve significantly once the perimenopause transition is completely finished. All the various possible perimenopause effects are caused by an overall drop, as well as dramatic but erratic fluctuations, in absolute and relative levels of estrogen and progesterone levels. Effects such as tingling (crawling, itching or tingling skin) can be associated directly with hormone withdrawal.
Both users and non-users of hormone replacement therapy identify lack of energy as the most frequent and distressing effect. Other effects can include vasomotor symptoms such as hot flashes, palpitations and psychological disorders such as depression, anxiety, irritability, mood swings, memory problems and lack of concentration, and atrophic effects such as vaginal dryness and urgency of urination.
The average woman also has increasingly menstrual periods irregular because ovulations omitted. Typically, the time of the flow becomes unpredictable. Furthermore, the duration of flow can be significantly shorter or longer than normal, and the flow itself may be significantly heavier or lighter than was previously the case, including staining times long bouts. Early in the process, it is not uncommon for some cycles of 2 weeks. Also in the process is common to omit periods of months at a time, and these skipped periods may be followed by a heavier period. The number of skipped periods in a row often increases as time approaches the last time. By the time a woman of menopausal age has had periods or spotting for 12 months, is considered to be a year of post-menopause.
One way to assess the impact on women of some of these effects menopause are the Greene Climacteric Scale questionnaire, Cervantes Scale and the Scale for the Assessment of menopause
• Vascular Instability
• Hot flashes or hot flushes, including night sweats and, in some people, chills
• Possible increased risk of atherosclerosis but contentious
• Rapid heartbeat
Urogenital atrophy, vaginal atrophy, also known as
• thinning the membrane of the vulva, vagina, cervix, urinary tract and outside, together with a considerable shrinkage and loss of elasticity of all internal and external genital areas.
• Young women who are approaching menopause may experience dysfunctional bleeding due to hormonal changes that accompany the transition to menopause. Genital bleeding is an alarming symptom for postmenopausal women requiring adequate study to rule out malignancy. Spotting or bleeding may be related to a harmless pain (polyp or lesion) or functional endometrial response (noncancerous). The European Menopause and Andropause Society has published guidelines for the evaluation of the endometrium, which is the main source of spotting or bleeding.
• Urinary frequency
• Urinary incontinence can worsen menopause-related quality of life, although urinary incontinence is more related to obstetric events menopause.
• Urinary urgency
• Increased susceptibility to inflammation and infection, for example vaginal candidiasis and urinary tract infections
• Joint pain, muscle pain
• Osteopenia and the risk of developing osteoporosis over time gradually
Skin, soft tissue
Skin, soft tissue
• breast atrophy
• Breast tenderness swelling
• Decreased skin elasticity
• Tingling (itching, tingling, burning, tingling or sensation of ants on or under the skin)
• Thinning and become dry
• Depression and / or anxiety
• Loss of memory and concentration problems
• Mood Disorders
• Sleep disturbances, poor quality sleep, light sleep, insomnia and drowsiness.
• Dyspareunia or painful intercourse
• Decreased libido
• The problems reaching orgasm
• Vaginal dryness and vaginal atrophy
Cohort studies have reached varying conclusions about medical conditions associated with menopause. For example, a 2007 study found that menopause was associated with hot flashes, joint pain and muscle pain, and depressed mood. In the same study, it was found that menopause is not associated with lack of sleep, decreased libido and vaginal dryness. However, in contrast to this, a 2008 study found an association with poor sleep quality.